The patients have crossed from Gaza into Egypt and were flown to Ankara on two planes.
Turkey has also sent a ship with materials for field hospitals, ambulances, and generators to Egypt to aid civilians who fled Israel's military operation against Hamas militants in Gaza.
Israeli airstrikes and a ground offensive, in response to Hamas attacks on 7 October, have resulted in casualties, with the health ministry in the Hamas-run territory reporting 11,500 deaths, mostly civilians, including thousands of children.
Turkish health minister Fahrettin Koca stated that the transfer of 27 patients and 13 companions from Egypt to Turkey was facilitated through co-ordination between Turkey, Egypt, and Israel.
Discussions in Egypt included plans for a Turkish field hospital at the Rafah crossing, pending approval from Egypt.